KD decreased the alpha diversity of microbiota. Having established the impact of KD on seizure thresholds, researchers went ahead to check the gut microbiota's role and proved that they are necessary & sufficient for the anti-seizure effect. The KD is mediating the colonization of certain taxa of gut microbiota. Next part of the study aimed at determining specific bacterial groups which mediated seizure protection. Coexistence of A. muciniphila and Parabacteroides restored seizure protection in microbiota depleted mice by antibiotic. One interesting finding of the study was conferring of seizure protection to mice fed with CD after gut microbiota transfer. Knockout mice models were used to establish the findings in seizure models of different etiologies.
The study expanded to explore the effects of secondary metabolites that impact seizure thresholds. Metabolomic profiling was carried out to identify microbiota specific molecules. Gut microbiota modulates gamma-glutamylation. This in turn turns the GABA/glutamate ratios is various regions in brain thus achieving seizure threshold control.